LPosted by Eddy Rhead Fri, September 09, 2011 11:10:25 Lee House
P G Fairhurst for H S Fairhurst and Son
1928 - 31
Original designs show that at the time this could have been, at seventeen storeys, Europe's tallest building. Lack of money prevented the full scheme being completed.
P Garland Fairhurst, Harry's son, had travelled to the United States and had returned enthused by the skyscrapers he had seen and at the earliest opportunity had attempted to construct one of his own. Elevations in the Fairhurst archive show the 17 storey building (perspective drawing above) and the proportions of the building we see today make more sense with this knowledge in mind.
Chapel (now deconsecrated). 1964-65. Designed by Frederick Gibberd in association with Reynolds and Scott. Reinforced concrete frame with mauve-coloured concrete block infill. Ring beam exposed at eaves has counterweights for the roof at the corners and is of board-marked, unpainted reinforced concrete; lantern ribs are of exposed, unpainted precast concrete. Copper low-pitched roof; coloured glass to lantern. Narrow, horizontal band of glazing separates the wall from the ring beam above on each side, except the entrance side and the facet opposite. Octagonal plan with low, projecting lean-to entrance to one angle, reached by a pair of flying staircases. Central altar, raised on several steps. Projecting organ gallery with organ facing the entrance (and containing former sacristy behind). Polygonal side chapel with metal railings to right of this. Ceiling has double 'Y' shaped expressed framing, with white triangular infill panels between. Original benches have been removed. Coloured glass in lantern comprises simple rectangles of red, yellow and green and was designed by D Atkins. This centralised chapel reflects the influence of the Liturgical Movement and is related to Gibberd's Liverpool Cathedral in its design
What does Professor Pevsner say?: “One must leave it to Mr. Pace – he is always fresh and never afraid of experiment, and he does not follow all the latest fashions. This is an interesting church, with the forked timbers supports of the roof inside, with the windows of many lights with broad flush unmoulded mullions and broad flush transoms in random places, and the tower with its steep saddleback roof. The gables have small windows in five tiers. The font perhaps has really too odd a shape but, once again, Mr. Pace is capable of convincing his clients that they must let him have his way.”
Elain Harwood suggests that, “there is a strong northern sensibility, reminiscent of Charles Rennie Mackintosh or E.S.Prior’s St. Andrew, Roker (1905-7)”. She notes that “Pace’s earliest designs are simple rendered halls for a congregation and sanctuary set in a single rectangular space. This changed in the late 1950s. As more non-orthogonal plans from mainland Europe became known, so his spaces became more organic. He expressed his materials – whether rough stone, concrete or brick – with increasing force and honesty. His penchant for punching small rectangular openings through these walls evolved from a Romanesque symmetry to a loose patterning reminiscent of Le Corbusier’s Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp.”
“This process reaches its maturity at St. Mark, which apes the local industrial aesthetic in its glossy unadorned engineering brick. Only the saddleback tower is reminiscent of Pace’s earlier work. A lattice pattern of windows dominates the interior, whose barn-like quality is enforced with giant forked posts of laminated timber. The church is entirely traditional in spirit – yet Nikolaus Pevsner could rightly term it “raw and wild” for its very simplicity”.
Elder was born in a terraced house in Lower Broughton Salford in
1909. He originally trained at the Royal Technical College in Salford
to be a bricklayer but his aspirations and talents meant he soon
progressed to The Manchester College of Technology, finally training
to be an architect at Manchester University's School of Architecture.
At a precociously young age he became a partner in the firm of
Roberts, Wood and Elder – a firm making a name for themselves
mainly in cinema design. Elder designed a house for himself and his
family in Timperley at the age of 24 and he was only 25 when he
designed perhaps his most well known building – the former Longford
cinema on Chester Road Stretford – now a Grade II listed building.
cinemas and private houses followed but the Second World War brought
a halt to his work. Before the war Elder had become fascinated by
Japanese architecture and had travelled to the country and had had
his observations published. Ironically the expertise and insight he
gained was utilised by the military during the war and he was
consulted on how best to destroy Japanese buildings with aerial
bombing. For this work he received an MBE but it apparently sat very
uneasily with Elder – torn by patriotic loyalty and the knowledge
he was serving to destroy a nation he had much regard and respect
for. His wartime experience were to greatly influence his later
life's work. Lack of jobs due to post war austerity and a growing
disillusionment with the architectural profession in the UK led him
to emigrate to North America in 1958.
taught at Cornell University and was eventually to direct the School
of Architecture at the University of British Columbia. His teaching
was, at the time, radical and controversial. He promoted the
increased enrolment of women and encouraged his students to develop a
greater understand of architecture as opposed to just churning out an
endless stream of jobbing architects. He promoted the idea of
sustainable architecture, decades before the concept had a name –
emphasising the need to build in harmony with the surrounding
landscape and using materials with the lowest environmental impact.
His ideas preceded ideals that would become the norm in the 1960's –
a proto hippy if you like.
was hugely respected by his students and is still talked of fondly by
a whole generation of North American architects. His name still lives
on in a UBC scholarship which according to the UBC website is “A
prize that has been endowed by friends and former students of Henry
Elder, Director of the School of Architecture from 1961 to 1975, to
recognize his inspirational and humanistic qualities which brought a
spirit of enquiry and joy in the study of architecture.”
bad for a lad from a scruffy terrace in Salford.
CPosted by Eddy Rhead Fri, June 17, 2011 20:56:44 Cenotaph, St Peters Square
Sir Edwin Lutyens 1924
Transport For Greater Manchester and Manchester City Council, in their wisdom, are proposing to move the Grade II* listed Cenotaph to accommodate the Second City Crossing for Metrolink.
The Manchester Modernist Society are strongly opposed to this idea and if you too feel strongly about this we would very much appreciate you add your views to the consultation.
The consultation document can be found
YPosted by Eddy Rhead Fri, May 20, 2011 00:05:19 York House 1911
Harry S Fairhurst
York House was one of the most important buildings built in twentieth century Manchester and must lay claim to be Manchester's first Modern building and one of Europe's first. Its importance was such that, when threatened with demolition, Walter Gropius himself sent a letter of support to the campaigners. The modernity of its design came at a time when Modernism as concept was still in its infancy and its Modernist credentials were not immediately obvious or deliberate. It was the cascading rear wall of glass which drew the attention - a purely functional design device - designed to bring the maximum amount of light into the textile showrooms within. The idea of external glass walls, with no obvious masonry support, became central to Modernist credo and yet York House pre-dated more noted Modernist buildings by over a decade. Its influence did not go unnoticed however and a campaign to save the building from demolition culminated in an exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art in 1968. Despite being listed in 1967 it was demolished in 1974.
The popularity of tripe in the first half of the C20th peaked when UCP opened their flagship store on Market Street, Manchester in 1964. Situated in Pall Mall externally it had the modernist feel of the day. Internally it seems no expense was spared and tripe could be enjoyed in surroundings that were the height of sophistication. The Manchester Evening News reported, “Soft music and pleasant surroundings induce a relaxed atmosphere. Features include… large windows overlooking busy Market Street, the neat cloakroom and the soft browns and oranges of the décor….” “Dominating the cafeteria is a giant panel depicting a country landscape with trees, fields and a river. The panel was designed and executed in Italy and covers most of the wall. It is illuminated in bright and cheerful colours. Immediately beneath it is yet another unusual feature of this ultra modern premises. It is a fountain and miniature waterfall in a natural rock setting with artificial flowers and ferns.”
“One of the most impressive highlights is the banqueting suite on the top floor. Most of one wall has been faced with Westmorland Green Stone, while on the other side of the large dining room is a wall covered with blue animal hide” (I’m not making this up!)
“Just off the main dining room in the Coniston Suite is a reception room with a bar; the dance floor is of maple wood and the lighting is housed in ceiling recesses.”